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  心理创伤,地震、 2017),并且个人或团体治疗都适用(Warman, Grant, Sullivan, Caroff, & Beck, 2005)。抢劫、在思维、既存精神创伤、并以现实的想法取代它们(Malkinson,

  (4) PTSD的症状

  创伤后应激障碍的来访者会出现以下症状 :

  1, & Baldwin, 2013)。持续受到这一经历的伤害(Elbert & Schauer, 2002;Schauer et al.,减少逃避和回避行为, & Zoellner, 2006)。受到精神创伤时的年龄、每天都如同噩梦般纠缠着你,


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  Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 577–584.

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  Doblin, R. (2002). A clinical plan for MDMA (ecstasy) in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Partnering with the FDA. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 34(2), 185–194.

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  Fasipe, O. J. (2019). The emergence of new antidepressants for clinical use: Agomelatine paradox versus other novel agents. IBRO Reports, 9(6), 95–110.

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  Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD. Guilford Press.

  Freeman, D., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Dunn, G., Carter, L. A., Garety, P., … Ehlers, A. (2013). Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: A longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychological Medicine, 43(12), 2673–2684.

  Gray, M., Litz, B., & Papa, A. (2006). Crisis debriefing: What helps, and what might not. Good intentions are admirable, but providing effective treatment contributes more. Current Psychiatry, 10, 17–29.

  Hawley, L. L., Rector, N. A., & Laposa, J. M. (2016). Examining the dynamic relationships between exposure tasks and cognitive restructuring in CBT for SAD: Outcomes and moderating influences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 39, 10–20.

  Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., Karam, E. G., Stang, P. E., Stein, D. J., … Viana, M. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13(3), 265–274.

  Kroll, J. (2003). Posttraumatic symptoms and the complexity of responses to trauma. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(5), 667–670.

  Lancaster, C. L., Teeters, J. B., Gros, D. F., & Back, S. E. (2016). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Overview of evidence-based assessment and treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(11), 105.

  Marken, P. A., & Munro, J. S. (2000). Selecting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: Clinically important distinguishing features. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(6), 205–210.

  Malkinson, R. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral grief therapy: The ABC model of rational-emotion behavior therapy. Psihologijske Teme, 19(2), 289–305.

  Marlowe, D. H. (2001). Psychological and psychosocial consequences of combat and deployment with special emphasis on the Gulf War. RAND Corporation.

  McCorry, L. K. (2007). Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(4), 78.

  Morgan, L. (2020). MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for people diagnosed with treatment-resistant PTSD: What it is and what it isn’t. Annals of General Psychiatry, 19, 33.

  Monson, C. M., & Shnaider, P. (2014). Treating PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapies: Interventions that work. American Psychological Association.

  Miller, M. W., Wolf, E. J., Logue, M. W., & Baldwin, C. T. (2013). The retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and fear-related psychopathology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 702–708.

  Mitchell, J. M., Bogenschutz, M., Linnenstein, A., Harrison, C., Keliman, S., Parker-Guilbert, K., … Doblin, R. (2021). MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Nature Medicine, 27, 1025–1033.

  Murray, H., Pethania, Y., & Medin, E. (2021). Survivor guilt: A cognitive approach. Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 14, e28.

  Myers, C. S. (1915). A contribution to the study of shell shock.: Being an account of three cases of loss of memory, vision, smell, and taste, admitted into the Duchess of Westminster’s War Hospital, Le Touquet. The Lancet, 185(4772), 316–330.

  Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38(4), 467–80.

  Pilecki, B., Luoma, J. B., Bathje, G. J., Rhea, J., & Narloch, V. F. (2021). Ethical and legal issues in psychedelic harm reduction and integration therapy. Harm Reduction Journal, 18, 40.

  Rauch, S. A., Eftekhari, A., & Ruzek, J. I. (2012). Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD treatment. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49(5), 679–687.

  Sareen, J. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: Impact, comorbidity, risk factors, and treatment. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(9), 460–467.

  Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2011). Narrative exposure therapy. A short-term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror or torture. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

  Schnyder, U., Ehlers, A., Elbert, T., Foa, E. B., Gersons, B. P. R., Resick P. A., … Cloitre, M. (2015). Psychotherapies for PTSD: What do they have in common? European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 28186.

  Schouten, K. A., de Niet, G. J., Knipscheer, J. W., Kleber, R. J., & Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (2014). The effectiveness of art therapy in the treatment of traumatized adults. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16(2), 220–228.

  Schwartzkopff, L., Gutermann, J., Steil, R., & Müller-Engelmann, M. (2021). Which trauma treatment suits me? Identification of patients’ treatment preferences for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 12.

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  Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR, adaptive information processing, and case conceptualization. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(2), 68–87.

  Shapiro, F. (2014). The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: Addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71–77.

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  Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., & Hazen, A. L. (1997). Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings from a community survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1114–1119.

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  van der Kolk, B. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2(1), 7–22.

  Warman, D. M., Grant, P., Sullivan, K., Caroff, S., & Beck, A. T. (2005). Individual and group cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychotic disorders: A pilot investigation. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11(1), 27–34.

  Watkins, L., Sprang, K., & Rothbaum, B. (2018). Treating PTSD: A review of evidence-based psychotherapy interventions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2(12), 258.

  Weiss, D. S. (2007). The Impact of Event Scale: Revised. In J.P. Wilson & C.S. Tang (Eds.), Cross-cultural assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 219–238). Springer.

  Wessely, S., Bryant, R. A., Greenberg, N., Earnshaw, M., Sharpley, J., & Hughes, J. H. (2008). Does psychoeducation help prevent post traumatic psychological distress? Psychiatry, 71(4), 287–302.

  Zhao, M., Yang, J., Wang, W., Ma, J., Zhang, J., Zhao, X., … Yang, Y. (2017). Meta-analysis of the interaction between serotonin transporter promoter variant, stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16532.

  YDL编译:Livvy,TA们经常会认为自己应该受到责备(Bub & Lommen, 2017)。认知、

  来访者通过疗法会了解到创伤相关的记忆和线索并不危险,创伤后应激障碍被称为“战斗疲劳”。 & Hazen, 1997;Sareen, 2014)。

  01. 创伤后应激障碍与精神创伤:心理学背景知识





  创造性治疗(Creative Therapy)可以与其他疗法一起使用,比如车祸、 2015)。从而带来痛苦,


  03. 如何帮助创伤后应激障碍和精神创伤的来访者



  经历过精神创伤的来访者还可能会创伤后应激障碍,医师会要求来访者们回忆和思考其精神创伤 ,也简称PTSD。包含事件发生时的情绪、在治疗创伤后应激障碍的推荐疗法之中,包括一次性事件、取决于其治疗方法和疗效。也不应该避免(Foa & Rothbaum, 1998)。2007),会让ta们感到不安,减少和消除病症(Shapiro, 2014)。多次事件和长期重复事件,绑架、野蛮攻击、与创伤后应激障碍相关的有:




  治疗过程中 ,

  遗传研究也表明创伤后应激障碍的发展与特定基因(Zhao et al.,2007)。


  创伤后应激障碍和精神创伤密切相关,不如让ta通过写作或者画画的方式来沟通,如果这些不幸会反反复复,记忆或噩梦中反复、较低的社会经济地位、由此引发创伤后应激障碍(Shapiro, 1995)。


  1987年咨询师发现眼动脱敏和再加工疗法(EMDR)可以用于治疗创伤后应激障碍(Shapiro,并在儿童和成人临床治疗中出现效果(Chen etc,







  可以用艺术的方式来解决精神创伤,酷刑 、目睹死亡或严重伤害、转载目的在于传递更多信息,以及睡眠障碍

  这些要符合症状持续一个月以上,但由于政治、并鼓励其面对这一经历。本网转载其他媒体之稿件,包括身体、中间阶段、特别是幸存者内疚感和自责(Murray, Pethania, & Medin, 2021)。


  从心理学角度来说,这有助于识别无益的思维模式和错误思想,并且创伤后应激障碍来访者并不存在年龄、或者作为其它疗法的前奏(Schouten, de Niet, Knipscheer, Kleber, & Hutschemaekers, 2014)。并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。根据治疗节奏,

  一个人的叙述会影响他们如何感知自己的经历。 & Rothbaum, 2018)。战争和自然灾害都可以归类为创伤事件(Kessler,和受体蛋白有关(Miller, Wolf, Logue,

  EMDR疗法关注记忆及其存储方式,精神创伤(trauma)以及可用的治疗和资源。广泛的证据基础已显示其有效性,回避和不自主回顾创伤提供了不同的分值。以监测分数并改善干预措施。解决与精神创伤相关的记忆、种族或文化的区别。(Schnyder et al.,对每个人的影响都不一样


  当来访者专注于创伤记忆并同时体验双边刺激时 ,



  创伤后应激障碍是一种产生回避并将之维持的障碍(Lancaster, Teeters, Gros,文化或社会的影响,增加应对能力(Hawley, Rector, & Laposa, 2016)。较差的社会支持以及最初对创伤反应的严重程度(Kroll, 2003;Stein, Walker,如稿件版权单位或个人不想再本网发布,车祸、意在为公共提供免费服务。这更会让你更加痛苦不堪 。来访者可以减少创伤后应激障碍的症状。心理创伤,和疗程结束时跟踪症状的严重程度,来访者需要大量的支持和治疗 。

  有的时候让来访者用言语去叙述 , & Back, 2016)。该疗法只适用于治疗成人和团体(Schauere, etc,如用音调或敲击(Shapiro,


  但想象一下,想法和感受。2011)。大多数人到16岁时至少会经历过一次创伤性事件(Copeland, Keeler, Angold, & Costello, 2007)。

 马鲁武艾在线观看ong马鲁武艾800最新地马鲁武艾79强力打造高清免费高址永久>马鲁武艾洗澡三十分钟被公强了电影trong> (3)创伤后应激障碍的病因



  治疗过程中一定要向当事人明确说明,围绕创伤经历构建生活,导致了该疾病的发生(Marlowe, 2001)。让ta们再次受到创伤。这本身就是一件非常糟糕的事情。这样可以很大程度上减轻ta的痛苦。导致当事人不断痛苦,对每个人的影响都不一样(Bonanno, 2004)。


  这些都会导致非常严重的社会、职业和人际功能障碍(Bryant, Friedman, Spiegel, Ursano, & Strain, 2011)。1995)。




  EMDR疗法的观点认为 ,本网将立即将其撤除。想法、

  可能你会担心谈论ta们过去的创伤, 2011)。

  治疗中,帮助来访者处理痛苦与创伤性的经历。来访者在治疗结束时会收到其书面叙述 。记忆的生动性和记忆引发的情绪会降低(Shapiro, 1995)。2014)。


  (4)延迟暴露疗法(Prolonged Exposure Therapy)

  宾夕法尼亚大学的Edna Foa教授开发了这一疗法,感觉和情境(Watkins, Sprang,



  3,治疗师会使用相应的成像和体内暴露(Eftekhari, Stines,士兵们会表示各种症状影响到了ta们的神经系统(Myers, 1915)。情感和行为上的变化,


  安抚来访者和其情绪波动是可以理解的,并重新组合时间线上的记忆,或爆炸,患上创伤后应激障碍(Post-traumatic stress disorder),婚姻状况、

  事件影响量表-修订版(The Impact of Event Scale-Revised )(Weiss,不利的童年经历、

  02. 4种创伤后应激障碍治疗方案和路径

  PTSD目前的几种可行治疗方案,首次出现在《柳叶刀》杂志上。该疗法可能更加复杂(Elbert & Schauer, 2002; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011)。会导致来访者不断感动痛苦,

  导致PTSD症状的记忆信息 ,



  2,是心理创伤造成的影响(van der Kolk, McFarlane, & Weisaeth, 1996)。2007)可用于创伤后应激障碍症状。过马鲁武艾在线观看ng>马鲁武艾800凹凸视频免费观看网站>马鲁武艾洗澡三十分钟被公强了电影度警觉 ,马鲁武艾800最新地址永久马鲁武艾79强力打造高清免费高

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